Reading research shows that the successful reader needs a balance of phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.  A struggling reader typically lacks at least two of these areas. Reading fluency, writing and spelling develop in conjunction with one another, which means that development in one area is linked to progression in another (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2007).  In addition, a stage-like progression in reading development exists beginning with letter awareness and ending with discovering pattern-meaning connections (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2007).  By guiding children through interactive activities that expose developmentally appropriate sound, pattern and meaning relationships in both their reading and their writing, children discern connections to these words and others, and are able to read and spell more successfully as a result (Ganske, 2000).  In addition, comprehension strategies are consistently addressed so that children are equipped with all the tools needed to be a fluent, successful readers (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2007).  Instruction occurs in supportive contexts at all times; material read is neither too easy nor too hard, encouraging children to use their prior reading knowledge to build upon and promoting a feeling of success during each and every session (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2007).  

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